Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare (2019)

Published by National Health and Medical Research Council on Feb 18, 2020

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Publication details
Publication title: Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare (2019)
Published: May 2019
Publisher: National Health and Medical Research Council
NHMRC Publication Reference: CD34 
Online version (interactive app): www.magicapp.org
Online version (PDF): www.nhmrc.gov.au/health-advice/public-health/preventing-infection
ISBN Online: 978-1-86496-028-0

Suggested citation: National Health and Medical Research Council (2019) Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

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© Commonwealth of Australia 2019
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The Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare were co-funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council and Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care.

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Abstract

The Guidelines provide a nationally accepted approach to infection prevention and control, focusing on core principles and priority areas for action. They provide a basis for healthcare workers and healthcare facilities to develop detailed protocols and processes for infection prevention and control specific to local settings.
 
This approach is underpinned by a risk-management framework to ensure the basic principles of infection prevention and control can be applied to a wide range of healthcare settings including hospitals, day procedure units, office-based practice, long-term care facilities, remote area health services, home and community nursing and emergency services. It is recognised that the level of risk may differ according to the different types of facility and therefore some recommendations should be justified by risk assessment. When implementing these recommendations all healthcare facilities need to consider the risk of transmission of infection and implement according to their specific setting and circumstances.
 
The evidence base for the Guidelines addresses the highest level of risk of infection transmission in the healthcare setting, and has predominantly been drawn from the acute-care setting. The recommendations should be read in the context of the evidence base and the advice on the practical application of the recommendations.

Language

en

PICOS

PICO 1.0

Population
Healthcare Workers
Intervention
Hand hygiene
Comparator
Non-alcohol based products
Outcomes

PICO 1.0

Population
Healthcare Workers
Intervention
ABHRs containing between 60% and 80% v/v ethanol or equivalent
Comparator
ABHRs with lower concentration of ethanol or equivalent
Outcomes

PICO 1.0

Population
Healthcare Workers ,
Intervention
Hand hygiene ,
Comparator
No hand hygiene ,
Outcomes
,

PICO 1.0

Population
Healthcare Workers
Intervention
Hand hygiene comparing different concentrations of alcohol, and of different alcohols e.g. ethyl, methyl, isopropyl, in reducing the risk of transmission of Clostridium difficile and non-enveloped viruses
Comparator
Washing with water and soap/detergent/chlorhexidine, other concentrations of same alcohol, other alcohols on Clostridium difficile and non-enveloped viruses
Outcomes

PICO 1.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Environmental surfaces coated or impregnated with antimicrobial (self‚Äźdisinfecting) materials
Comparator
Standard-surfaced objects
Outcomes

PICO 1.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Sodium hypochlorite
Comparator
Standard cleaning practice
Outcomes

PICO 1.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Hydrogen peroxide vapour disinfection and standard cleaning/disinfection
Comparator
Standard cleaning practice
Outcomes

PICO 1.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Ultra-violet light disinfection and standard cleaning/disinfection
Comparator
Standard terminal room disinfection (sodium hypochlorite)
Outcomes

PICO 1.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Ultra-violet light disinfection and sodium hypochlorite
Comparator
Standard cleaning practices
Outcomes

PICO 1.1

Population
Patients
Intervention
Hand hygiene
Comparator
No hand hygiene
Outcomes

PICO 2.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Hand hygiene and personal protective equipment
Comparator
No hand hygiene and no personal protective equipment
Outcomes

PICO 2.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Patient-dedicated/single-use patient-care equipment
Comparator
Reusable equipment
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Healthcare Workers
Intervention
Safety Devices
Comparator
Non-retractable devices
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Patients
Intervention
Contact Precautions
Comparator
Non-contact Precautions
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Patients
Intervention
Device insertion and management
Comparator
Comparisons of one form of skin antisepsis with others, e.g. alcoholic vs aqueous products including chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, betadine
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Healthcare workers
Intervention
Policies and procedures for clinical handover
Comparator
No formalised process for clinical handover
Outcomes

PICO 2.1

Population
Healthcare workers
Intervention
Exclusion period
Comparator
Different periods of time
Outcomes

PICO 2.2

Population
Healthcare workers
Intervention
Immediate disposal of sharps
Comparator
Non-immediate disposal of sharps
Outcomes

PICO 2.2

Population
Patients
Intervention
Bay closures
Comparator
Ward closures
Outcomes

PICO 2.2

Population
Patients
Intervention
Systems and processes for device management
Comparator
No systems and processes for device management
Outcomes

PICO 3.0

Population
Bacteria, non-enveloped and enveloped viruses
Intervention
Site decontamination after spills of blood or other potentially infectious materials
Comparator
No site decontamination
Outcomes

PICO 3.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Droplet precautions
Comparator
Non-droplet precautions
Outcomes

PICO 3.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Personal protective equipment
Comparator
No personal protective equipment
Outcomes

PICO 3.0

Population
Healthcare workers
Intervention
Masks and protective eyewear
Comparator
No masks and protective eyewear
Outcomes

PICO 3.0

Population
Healthcare workers
Intervention
Aprons and Gowns
Comparator
No aprons and gowns
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Bacteria, non-enveloped and enveloped viruses
Intervention
Cleaning agent
Comparator
Frequency of agent use considering survival rates of the organisms
Outcomes

PICO 3.1

Population
Healthcare workers
Intervention
Education programs
Comparator
Other education programs
Outcomes

PICO 3.2

Population
Bacteria, non-enveloped and enveloped viruses
Intervention
Environmental cleaning agent
Comparator
Alternative environmental cleaning agents and mode of transmission of organisms
Outcomes

PICO 3.3

Population
Patients
Intervention
Disinfection/bleach, hand washing/soap/water, personal protective equipment etc
Comparator
Other, alcohol based
Outcomes

PICO 3.4

Population
Healthcare workers
Intervention
Surface barriers
Comparator
No surface barriers
Outcomes

PICO 4.0

Population
Patients
Intervention
Airborne precautions
Comparator
Non-airborne precautions
Outcomes

PICO 4.0

Population
Patients colonised or infected with a Multi-Resistant Organism (MRO)
Intervention
Transmission-based precautions
Comparator
Non--transmission-based precautions
Outcomes

PICO 4.1

Population
Patients
Intervention
Chlorhexidine use
Comparator
No Chlorhexidine use
Outcomes

PICO 4.2

Population
Patients
Intervention
Risk register for chlorhexidine
Comparator
No risk register for chlorhexidine
Outcomes

PICO 6.1

Population
Healthcare workers
Intervention
Sterile gloves
Comparator
Non-sterile gloves
Outcomes